Smart City Materials, Systems, Markets 2022-2042

Commercially-oriented and newly prepared by PhD level IDTechEx analysts worldwide, the 339 page IDTechEx report, “Smart City Materials, Systems, Markets 2022-2042” identifies gaps in the market, potential partners, lessons from success and failure, business cases for new materials, devices and systems. It has many new technology explanations, case studies, roadmaps, ideas and forecasts. Emphasis is required materials, devices and systems, identifying gaps in the market.

Understand the massive new challenges of desertification, rising sea levels, starvation, increasingly violent weather, dysfunctional national governments and the accelerating move to cities can be tackled on a human scale. With trillions of dollars about to be spent on smart cities, priorities need to be entertainment, inclusiveness, safety, security, adaptability, zero-emission, efficiency and affordability. The report details how we can achieve this with independence of water, food and energy supply, new faster, inclusive forms of multipurpose transport and appropriate city location and layout.

Enablers include 100% electrification and the startling advances in multifunctional smart materials explained in the report. Examples are 3D printed graphene concrete in new tunnels under London and solar bodywork of smart shuttles. Renaming a video doorbell as Internet of Things will not change the fate of mankind but a seawall that is made of the new “everlasting” concrete and makes ample electricity just might. Metamaterials may be more key to success with 6G Communications than big data.

Compact food production in cities replaces traditional farming with its problems of manpower, emissions, water pollution, space, cost, security and transport. You can understand relevance of saline and vertical farming, solar greenhouses, xeriscaping, cultivated cellular meat and milk. Aquaponics grows vegetables and fish together, agrivoltaics marries electricity and food production and bioswales prevent flooding, clean water, grow food. Biocrete architecture nourishes plants. Food production delightfully integrates into living space – see examples.

The report finds that, ironically, Disney EPCOT Florida is nearer to an ideal smart city than most of the dehumanised ones now being erected with massively wide streets, empty skyscrapers, no center and no soul. The report compares many, finding another irony. Most of the really-impactful, imaginative approaches are not taking place in new cities but in existing cities like London, Beijing and New York. The most appealing newcomers are mostly tiny – like Toyota Woven City – but could have lessons for large cities needed. Best practice is identified and new ideas are proposed in the report.

The Executive Summary and Conclusions is sufficient for those in a hurry. Infograms interpret pollution, desertification, sea level rise, responses including food, water, energy independence, resilience, conservation, zero-emission, electrification. Here are required smart materials, infrastructure, transport, multifunctional composites, ultra-high-performance concretes, new air taxis, robot shuttles, energy harvesting, off-grid city electricity, indoor food production. It summarises supporting ICT, IOT, 6G, sensors, case studies and best practice. 25 of its 57 dense pages are new roadmaps and forecasts, mostly 2022-2042. Chapter 2 is a smart cities appraisal – old, new and planned – illustrated with new images and commentary, lessons of failure.

Chapter 3 extensively covers reinvented concrete and smart materials for smart cities. Most attention is given to cement and its derivatives such as concrete, the most-used man-made material in cities, because they are more of the problem (10% of global warming) and more of the solution (many routes to decarbonisation, higher strength very long life means less needed and least carbon of all, 3D printed buildings and more). However, 10 of its 42 very detailed pages cover the emerging multi-mode roads, sidewalks, parking areas and airport runways, new metamaterials, city cooling materials and more with a key startup appraised.

The 46 pages of Chapter 5 concern food independence for cities – why, where, how, when, best practice, making the required electricity where it is needed and new ideas with many actual layouts and successes. It ends with four pages on the robotics for the trend to unmanned facilities. Water independence takes 12 pages as Chapter 6.

Raghu Das of IDTechEx points out, “Cities may never practice independence in food production or even electricity and drinking water but resilience against the much tougher challenges ahead requires them to move towards independence as a capability. Even tiny Singapore now targets one third of food made internally.”

Many smart cities target layouts that require no more than 15 minutes to get from home to work or shops. However, we shall still want to get to the historic city center, the countryside, the next cities and attractions and that is why Chapter 7 concerns new forms of zero-emission transport eliminating congestion and getting even the poor or disabled to get to precisely where they want as with robot shuttles on plazas paths and into buildings, Hyperloop at airline speed, vertical takeoff air taxis and more. What is doomed to fail? What is promising and when? Given their relative importance, the 43 pages cover mainly new city land and air travel but touching on marine.

The report finds independence of electricity production, zero-emission, to be easier for most cities than independence of food and water because so many technologies are now available for purchase with many more coming soon.

Das explains, “A windy city may have very large wind turbines where one revolution charges a house for three days but the primary trend is making electricity where it is needed, notably with solar everywhere from windows to paths, walls, vehicles and park benches. A new challenge arises from solar weak in winter so we cover energy storage delaying electricity supply up to seasonal.”

The 56 pages of this chapter embrace options for cities from both batteries and non-battery storage. Learn mostly about generation from water, wind and daylight in many new forms but also see the place of hydrogen.